Negara dan Kediktatoran: Perspektif Psikologi Sosial

Authors

  • Masita Utami Universitas Negeri Malang
  • Mochammad Sa’id Universitas Negeri Malang

Keywords:

kepemimpinan politik; kediktatoran; otoritarianisme; demokrasi; psikologi sosial

Abstract

Abstract: Leaders are almost always needed in a group or organizational situation, including a state, which has the purpose of making decisions. One style of leadership is authoritarian leadership. Leaders who embrace this leadership style are called dictators and the state or government led by dictators is called the dictatorship. However, empirical researches in psychology on dictatorship phenomena are still rarely done. Therefore, we expect this paper will encourage more empirical researches on this phenomenon in the field of psychology, especially social psychology. This article was written with a literature review approach from a variety of relevant sources: books, book chapters, review articles, and research articles. The perspective used is social psychological perspective because in our opinion it is more precise and comprehensive. The results of literature review show that dictatorship consists of three types: monarchic dictatorship, military dictatorship, and civilian dictatorship. The figure of a dictator in dictatorship state has narcissism trait classified in the Dark Triad characteristics. The dictatorship state has two main problems namely power-sharing and authoritarian control. Empirically, dictatorship practices have more negative than positive impacts on a state. In addition, dictatorship practices are also contrary to the nature of leadership should be played by a state leader.

Abstrak: Pemimpin hampir selalu dibutuhkan dalam situasi kelompok atau organisasi, termasuk dalam sebuah negara, yang memiliki tujuan untuk membuat keputusan. Salah satu gaya kepemimpinan adalah kepemimpinan otoriter yang identik dengan kepemimpinan sewenang-wenang. Pemimpin yang menganut gaya kepemimpinan ini disebut dengan diktator dan negara atau pemerintahan yang dipimpin oleh diktator disebut dengan kediktatoran. Namun demikian, penelitian empiris di bidang psikologi mengenai fenomena kediktatoran masih jarang dilakukan. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini diharapkan dapat mendorong lahirnya riset-riset empiris di bidang psikologi, khususnya psikologi sosial, mengenai fenomena kediktatoran. Artikel ini ditulis dengan pendekatan telaah literatur (literature review) dari berbagai sumber yang relevan, baik itu berupa buku, book chapter, artikel telaah, maupun artikel penelitian. Perspektif yang digunakan adalah perspektif psikologi sosial karena dianggap lebih tepat dan komprehensif. Hasil telaah literatur menunjukkan bahwa kediktatoran terdiri dari tiga jenis, yaitu monarchic dictatorship, military dictatorship, dan civilian dictatorship. Sosok diktator dalam negara kediktatoran biasanya memiliki trait kepribadian narsisisme yang tergolong dalam karakteristik Dark Triad. Negara kediktatoran memiliki dua masalah utama yaitu power-sharing dan authoritarian control. Secara empiris, praktik kediktatoran memiliki lebih banyak dampak negatif daripada positif bagi sebuah negara. Selain itu, praktik kediktatoran juga bertentangan dengan hakikat kepemimpinan yang harusnya diperankan oleh seorang pemimpin negara.

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Published

2022-09-12

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